Volume 13, Number 1, March 2020
|Page(s)||1 - 21|
|Published online||31 March 2020|
Gyro-devices – natural sources of high-power high-order angular momentum millimeter-wave beams
Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
2 Institute of Radiofrequency Engineering and Electronics (IHE), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe, Germany
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The Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) carried by light beams with helical phasefront (vortex beams) has been widely employed in many applications such as optical tweezers, optical drives of micro-machines, atom trapping, and optical communication. OAM provides an additional dimension (diversity) to multiplexing techniques, which can be utilized in addition to conventional multiplexing methods to achieve higher data rates in wireless communication. OAM beams have been thoroughly studied and used in the optical regime but in the mm-wave and THz-wave region, they are still under investigation. In these frequency bands, there are difficulties associated with beam-splitting and beam-combining processes as well as with the use of spiral phase plates and other methods for OAM generation, since the wavelength is much larger compared to those at optical frequencies, leading to higher diffraction losses.
The present paper describes the natural generation of high-power OAM modes by gyro-type vacuum electron devices with cylindrical interaction circuit and axial output of the generated rotating higher-order transverse electric mode TEm,n, where m > 1 and n are the azimuthal and radial mode index, respectively. The ratio between the total angular momentum (TAM) JN and total energy WN of N photons is given by m/ω, where ω is the angular frequency of the operating mode, which in a gyrotron oscillator is close to the TEm,n-mode cutoff frequency in the cavity. Therefore, m/ω = Rc/c, where Rc is the caustic radius and c the velocity of light in vacuum. This means that the OAM is proportional to the caustic radius and at a given frequency the same for all modes with the same azimuthal index m. Right-hand rotation (co-rotation with the electrons) corresponds to a positive value of m and left-hand rotation to negative m. The corresponding OAM mode number (topological charge) is l = m – 1. Circularly polarized TE1n modes only possess a Spin Angular Momentum (SAM: s = ±1). TE0n modes have neither SAM nor OAM.
This is the result of the photonic (quasi-optical) approach to derive the TAM of modes generated in gyrotrons. The same result follows from the electromagnetic (EM) wave approach for the TAM within a given waveguide volume per total energy of the EM wave in the same volume.
Such high-power output beams with very pure higher-order OAM, generated by gyrotron oscillators or amplifiers (broadband) could be used for multiplexing in long-range wireless communications. The corresponding mode and helical wavefront sensitive detectors for selective OAM-mode sorting are available and described in the present paper.
Key words: Orbital angular momentum (OAM) / Spin angular momentum (SAM) / Millimeter-wave and THz-wave vortex beams / Gyrotron / Gyro-amplifiers / Long-range wireless communication / Multiplexing / Diversity
© The Author(s) 2020
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, except for commercial purposes, provided the original work is properly cited.
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